词汇用法指南:ad hoc

ad hoc 来自拉丁语,原意是“为此”(to this),在英语中使用广泛,含义是“特地、专门、为此时此地某一特定目的”。这个词的延伸含义是“没有一贯原则”,但美国著名的英语用法专家 Bryan A. Garner 认为这是马虎的用法,不应提倡。比如:The D.C. Council, for example, undermines the work of the commission by approving tax changes on an ad hoc basis in response to the whims of business groups。Garner 认为句中的 on an ad hoc basis 应改为 haphazardly。

尽管 Garner 不喜欢 ad hoc 的这个新用法,但韦氏大词典最新释义已经收录了:

Ad hoc

1: made, established, acting, or concerned with a particular end or purpose

<a coordinated policy instead of ad hoc decisions>

<an ad hoc commission of inquiry>

2: fashioned from whatever is immediately available : improvised

<He had written a screenplay for the guidance of the producers and the crew, but he asked the actors to improvise, to speak as they knew these characters would speak in these situations. This ad hoc approach is hardly new, but the result here is exceptionally good. — Stanley Kauffman, New Republic, 21 Apr. 2003>

<When you don’t have all night to nibble cured meats, olives and cheese in an ad hoc dinner, this antipasto-style salad satisfies that craving but is also robust enough to serve as a main course. — Renee Schettler, Washington Post, 21 July 2002>

此外,他还认为:on an ad hoc basis、in an ad hoc manner 比较啰嗦,应简化为 ad hoc 这个原本该使用的词;不应该用 very 或者 fairly 来修饰 ad hoc;不应缩写为一个单词(比如 adhocing);不使用连字符。

最后,派生词 adhocracy,意为用临时而非永久或者制度化的办法完成某项任务的体制、组织或者政府组织。

韦氏大辞典释义:

a temporary organization or committee set up to accomplish a specific task; also : a system of government utilizing such organizations

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